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[EBOOK] Egyptian Clover (Trifolium alexandrinum): King of Forage Crops, More Writers, FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

Egyptian clover, or berseem. Trifolium alexandrium, a very important crop, for fodder and soil fertility maintenance, was domesticated in Egypt and is now widespread in irrigated cropping systems in west and south Asia and used in commercial fanning in many countries with mild winters; India is now the largest producer Because of its regional importance FAO RNE organised an Exp al Consultation Workshop on “Forage Production Potential of Egyptian Clover and its Role in Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in die Near East Countries" on 6-7 November 2012 in Cairo, Egypt", to facilitate exchange of information between agronomists, livestock and fodder specialists in die region This publication brings togedier the outputs of the Expert Consultation Berseem is also widely used in large-scale livestock systems in areas of mild winters in Europe, America and Australia but these cases are not discussed here.

Agriculture in Egypt IS more dian 5 000 years old; the Nile and berseeni are two main reasons for its high productivity and siLsta inability. Ba seem fixes huge quantities of atmospheric nitrogen, sustaữis animal husbandry and raises fertility for following crops. As a gi ceil manure on newly reclaimed or worn out soils, it is a boon to farmers Traditional cultivation methods in Egy pt were excellent and in balance widi die environment and fanning systems. New varieties have enhanced herbage and seed production and now Egypt is die largest exporter of berseem seed Research on its cultivation and improvement has increased manifold The results of dns woik arc summarised in this publication A consolidated sun unary of dicse results makes than more readily available die world over and a large bibliography IS provided

The publication is in nine chapters. After an Introduction diere are chapters on: The Crop and its Growth; Agronomy; Crop Improvement; Seed Production, Chemical Composition and New vistas in Berseem Research. These are followed by a sei ies of country papers from Afghanistan, Egypt, India, Iran, Nepal, Pakistan and Turkey These describe die state of cultivation and research on die crop in each country.

Notwithstanding die great flourishing of academic research, notably in Egypt, die impact of its results are not very obvious on die farms of smallholdets. The country studies show clearly dial most smallholders sow dilty seed of unimproved landiaces. contaminated by weeds and parasites Berseem gives high seed yields and its seed is easy to clean, very simple machinery' suffices - Egypt exports large quantities which meet die quality and phytosanitary requirements of international hade. Countries where berseem is important should support seed improvement infrastructure and follow by extension of improved cultivars and agronomic teclmiques The end use of berseem, fertility maintenance apart, is livestock production; it is especially associated widi daily production and buffaloes. Unfortunately it is difficult to conserve so has to be involved in year-round fodder production systems and improvement of daily stock and livestock management.

[EBOOK] Egyptian Clover (Trifolium alexandrinum): King of Forage Crops, More Writers, FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

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