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[EBOOK] ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES, FOREIGN LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


FOOD AND NUTRITION

READING COMPREHENSION

All living organisms require food for survival, growth, and reproduction. Most broadly, the term food can be taken to include any kind of nutrient needed by animals, plants, and simpler forms of life, on down to bacteria. This would include, for example, the inorganic substances that 5 plants draw from air and water. The processes that circulate these basic nutrients in the environment are called nutrient cycles, and the processes by which organisms make use of nutrients are collectively known as metabolism.

In terms of the energy needs of humans and other animals, food consists 10 of carbohydrate, fat, and protein, along with vitamins and minerals.

Humans may consume a wide range of different food substances, as long as they meet nutrition requirements. Otherwise nutritional-deficiency diseases will develop.

Nutrition is the science that interprets the relationship of food to the functioning of the living organism. It is concerned with the intake of food, digestive processes, the liberation of energy, and the elimination of wastes, as well as with all the syntheses that are essential for maintenance, growth, and reproduction. These fundamental activities are 20 characteristic of all living organisms - from the simplest to the most complex plants and animals. Nutrients are substances, either naturally occurring or synthesized, that are necessary for maintenance of the normal function of organisms. These include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals, water, and some unknown substances.

The nutritionist, a scientist working in the field of nutrition, differs from the dietitian, who translates the science of nutrition into the skill of furnishing optimal nourishment to people. Dietetics is a profession concerned with the science and art of human nutrition care, an essential component of the health sciences. The treatment of disease by 30 modification of the diet lies within the province of the physician and the dietitian.

The foods consumed by humans must contain, in adequate amounts, about 45 to 50 highly important substances. Water and oxygen are equally essential. Starting only with these essential nutrients obtained 35 from food, the body makes literally thousands of substances necessary for life and physical fitness. Most of these substances are far more complicated in structure than the original nutrients.

Energy metabolism and requirements are customarily expressed in terms of the calorie, a heat unit. Adoption of the calorie by nutritionists 40 followed quite naturally from the original methods of measuring energy metabolism. The magnitude of human energy metabolism, however, made it awkward to record the calorie measured, so the convention of the large calorie, or kilocalorie (kcal), was accepted. Atwater factors, also called physiologic fuel factors, are based on the corrections for 45 losses of unabsorbed nutrients in the feces and for the calorie equivalent of the nitrogenous products in the urine. These factors are as follows: 1g of pure protein will yield 4 calories, 1g of pure fat will yield 9 calories, and 1 g of pure carbohydrate will yield 4 calories.


[EBOOK] ENGLISH FOR NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCES, FOREIGN LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT, UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY


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